TRANSFORMATION OF WATER CHEMICAL COMPOSITION IN ARCTIC TUNDRA CREEKS UNDER WATER-ROCK INTERACTION
The degree of knowledge about migration of water and dissolved substances in arctic and subarctic permafrost landscapes is extremely low. In our study the water sources and the mechanisms of streamflow formation of the small Arctic tundra rivers in the lower Lena River are described on the basis of hydrochemical data. Studied natural waters are contrasting in chemical composition. The maximum concentrations of chemicals, up to the brackish type of water, are characteristic of groundwater seeps, the composition of which is formed during long-term interaction with parent rocks. The freshest waters are confined to the organic layers of the soil profile. The sources of streams are ultra-fresh, cold and sometimes show a slightly acidic reaction, which indicates their formation in the organic part of the active layer at the contact with the permafrost top. Downstream where the channel is actively cut into the bedrock, the streams' waters are enriched with mineral compounds. Downstream, water warms up in the channel and ultra-fresh water flows from the slopes and dilute the stream water. The sources and low-mineralized tributaries of the small streams are formed due to the thawing of the ground ice in the active layer. The interaction of water and rocks determines the chemical composition of the water of the studied streams. Information about the chemical composition of natural waters allows drawing conclusions about the sources and water pathways in the watersheds, which is necessary for developing models and predicting natural processes.
Alekin O.A. Osnovy gidrokhimii [Fundamentals of hydrochemistry], Leningrad, Publ. Gidrometeoizdat, 1953. 297 p. (In Russian).
Anisimova N.P. Kriogidrogeokhimicheskie osobennosti merzloi zony [Cryohydrogeochemical features of the permafrost zone]. Novosibirsk, Publ. Nauka, 1981. 153 p. (In Russian).
Blaen P.J., Hannah D.M., Brown L.E., Milner A.M. Water temperature dynamics in High Arctic River basins. Hydrological Processes, 2013, vol. 27, iss. 20, pp. 2958–2972. DOI: 10.1002/hyp.9431.
Carey S.K., Quinton W.L. Evaluating snowmelt runoﬀ generation in a discontinuous permafrost catchment using stable isotope, hydrochemical and hydrometric data. Nordic Hydrology, 2004, vol. 35, no. 4–5, pp. 309–324. DOI: 10.2166/nh.2004.0023.
Colombo N., Salerno F., Gruber S., Freppaz M., Williams M., Fratianni S., Giardino M. Review: Impacts of permafrost degradation on inorganic chemistry of surface fresh water. Global and Planetary Change, 2018, vol. 162, pp. 69–83. DOI:10.1016/J.GLOPLACHA.2017.11.017.
Gubareva T.S., Gartsman B.I., Vasilenko N.G. Sources of river flow formation in the zone of permafrost: estimation by the methods of tracer hydrology according to the data of regime hydrochemical observations. Earth’s Cryosphere, 2018, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 29–40. DOI: 10.21782/EC2541-9994-2018-1(29-40). (Russ. ed.: Gubareva T.S., Gartsman B.I.,
Vasilenko N.G. Istochniki formirovaniya rechnogo stoka v zone mnogoletnei merzloty: otsenka metodami trassernoi gidrologii po dannym rezhimnykh gidrokhimicheskikh nablyudenii. Kriosfera Zemli, 2018, vol. 22, iss. 1, pp. 32–43. DOI: 10.21782/KZ1560-7496-2018-1(32-43)).
Helbig M., Boike J., Langer M., Schreiber P., Runkle B.R.K., Kutzbach L. Spatial and seasonal variability of polygonal tundra water balance: Lena River Delta, northern Siberia (Russia). Hydrogeology Journal, 2013, vol. 21, iss. 1, pp. 133–147. DOI: 10.1007/s10040-012-0933-4.
Ivanov A.V. Kriogennaya metamorfizatsiya sostava prirodnykh l'dov, zamerzayushchikh i talykh vod [Cryogenic metamorphization of the composition of natural ice, freezing and melt waters]. Khabarovsk, Publ. Dal'nauka, 1998. 163 p. (In Russian).
Kutzbach L. The exchange of energy, water and carbon dioxide between wet arctic tundra and the atmosphere at the Lena River delta, Northern Siberia. PhD zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades der Naturwissenschaften im Fachbereich Geowissenschaften der Universität Hamburg. Hamburg, Universität Hamburg, 2006. 160 p. DOI: 10.2312/BZPM_0541_2006.
Lamhonwah D., Lafrenière M.J., Lamoureux S.F., Wolfe B.B. Multi-year impacts of permafrost disturbance and thermal perturbation on high Arctic stream chemistry. Arctic Science, 2017, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 254–276. DOI: 10.1139/as-2016-0024.
Tarbeeva A.M. Monitoring ovrazhnoi termoerozii na severe Yakutii [Monitoring of gully thermal erosion in the north of Yakutia]. Rel'ef i chetvertichnye obrazovaniya Arktiki, Subarktiki i severo-zapada Rossii. Materialy ezhegodnoi konferentsii po rezul'tatam ekspeditsionnykh issledovanii. Vypusk 8. (g. Sankt-Peterburg, 16–17 dekabrya 2021 goda) [Relief and Quaternary deposits of the Arctic, Subarctic and North-West Russia. Proceedings of the annual conference on the results of expedition research. Issue 8. (St. Peterburg, 16–17 December 2021)], pp. 228–234. (In Russian; abstract in English). DOI: 10.24412/2687-1092-2021-8-228-234.
Tarbeeva A.M., Efremov V.S., Lebedeva L.S. Termoerozionnye protsessy v basseinakh malykh rek arkticheskogo poberezh'ya Yakutii vblizi del'ty r. Leny [Thermoerosion in the small basins of the arctic coast of Yakutia near the Lena delta]. Rel'ef i chetvertichnye obrazovaniya Arktiki, Subarktiki i severo-zapada Rossii. Materialy ezhegodnoi konferentsii po rezul'tatam ekspeditsionnykh issledovanii. Vypusk 7. (g. Sankt-Peterburg,
–18 dekabrya 2020 goda) [Relief and Quaternary deposits of the Arctic, Subarctic and North-West Russia. Proceedings of the annual conference on the results of expedition research. Issue 7. (St. Peterburg, 17–18 December 2020)], pp. 215–220. (In Russian; abstract in English). DOI: 10.24411/2687-1092-2020-10733.
Teplovodoobmen v merzlotnykh landshaftakh Vostochnoi Sibiri i ego faktory [Heat and water exchange in permafrost landscapes of Eastern Siberia and its factors]. Tver', Publ. Triada, 2007. 575 p. (In Russian).
Tregubov O.D., Gartsman B.I., Tarbeeva A.M., Lebedeva L.S., Shepelev V.V. Spatial and temporal dynamics of sources and water regime of the Ugol'naya-Dionisiya river (Anadyr lowland, Chukotka). Water Resources, 2021, vol. 48, iss. 4, pp. 521–531. DOI: 10.1134/S0097807821040187. (Russ. ed.: Tregubov O.D., Gartsman B.I., Tarbeeva A.M., Lebedeva L.S., Shepelev V.V. Prostranstvennaya i vremennaya dinamika istochnikov pitaniya i vodnogo rezhima rek Anadyrskoj nizmennosti. Vodnye resursy, 2021, vol. 48, iss. 4, pp. 427–438.
Walvoord M.A., Kurylyk B.L. Hydrologic impacts of thawing permafrost – a review. Vadose Zone Journal, 2016, vol. 15, iss. 6, pp. 1–20. DOI: 10.2136/VZJ2016.01.0010.
Abstract views: 12 PDF Downloads: 0