PHASE TRANSITIONS IN THE DEBRIS FLOW GEOSYSTEMS
The evolution of a debris-flow geosystem can be described as a continuous process. Stages of geosystems evolution: the formation of a massif of loose rocks in a debris-flow site, its transformation to potential debris-flow massifs due to diagenesis and morphogenesis, the occurrence and movement of a debris flow, unloading of large-block and then – fine-dispersed material and the passage of a debris-flow. Each stage of the debris-flow geosystem evolution can be described as a transition from one subsystem level to another and the change of states of the system – as phase transitions of first kind. Physical processes occurring within the system cause it. The most important transition is from a solid state (potential debris-flows massif-conditionally homogeneous solid having an internal structure) to a debris-flow and mudflow (quasi-liquid state). The transition of a potential debris-flow massif to another phase state is due not only to external factors (the inflow of free water into the debris-flow site), but also internal: the mineralogical composition of rocks of the potential debris-flow massif (the content of hydrophilic minerals). The most important parameter that determines both the connectivity of the soils of the potential debris-flow massif and the conditions of its transition to the liquid phase are the electric forces at the contacts between the elements of the mineral skeleton (soil particles). Electrical forces provide a connection between the ground particles. The liquid component of the mudflow is traditionally described as a "debris-flow suspension", but a coherent debris-flow and mudflow is not a suspension. A suspension is a dispersed system consisting of a solid dispersed phase and a liquid dispersion medium in which the solid is uniformly distributed as minute particles in a liquid substance in suspension. Such a medium is not able to carry over long distances block-boulder material having a higher density than the suspension. Nevertheless, a coherent debris-flow and mudflow is a conditionally single-phase system in which water is predominantly in a molecular bound state. The physical analogue of a coherent debris-flow and mudflow is a colloidal system, since in a connected village fine-earth particles are distributed in a continuous dispersion medium and do not precipitate. This circumstance is key in the physical modeling of connected debris-flows and mudflows.
Arnol'd V.I. Teoriya katastrof [The theory of catastro-phes]. Moscow, Publ. Nauka, 1990. 128 p. (In Russian).
Ebeling W. Strukturbildung bei Irreversiblen Prozessen – Eine Einführung in die Theorie dissipativer Strukturen. Leipzig, Publ. BSB Teubner, 1976. 194 p. (Russ. ed. Obrazovanie struktur pri neobratimykh protsessakh. Vvedenie v teoriyu dissipativnykh struktur. Moscow, Publ. Mir, 1979. 280 p.)
Fleishman S.M. Seli [Mudflow]. Leningrad, Publ. Gidro-meteoizdat, 1978. 312 p. (In Russian).
Haken H. Information and Self-Organization. A Macro-scopic Approach to Complex Systems. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, Ser. Sinergetics, vol.40. 1983. 258 p. (Russ. ed.: Khaken G. Informatsiya i samoorganizatsiya. Makros-kopicheskii podkhod k slozhnym sistemam. Moscow, Mir Publ., 1991. 240 p.)
Kazakov N.A. Selevoi protsess kak tsep' fazovykh perekhodov [Mudflow process as a chain of phase transi-tions]. Tezisy dokladov Tret'ei Vserossiiskoi konferentsii s mezhdunarodnym uchastiem «Geodinamicheskie protsessy i prirodnye katastrofy» (g. Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, 27-31 maya 2019 g.) [Abstracts of the Third National scientific confer-ence with foreign participants “Geodynamical Processes and Natural Hazards” (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, 27-31 of May 2019)]. Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Publ. IMGG FEB RAS, 2019. P. 140. (In Russian).
Kazakov N.A. Evolyutsiya selevoi geosistemy kak protsess samoorganizatsii uporyadochennykh struktur [Evolution of the debris-flow geosystem as process of self-organization of the ordered structures]. Georisk [Georisk], 2015, No 2, pp. 28-30, 60. (in Russian; sum-mary in English)
Kazakov N.A., Ryashchenko T.M., Gensiorovskiy Y.V., Ukhova N.N. Sostav porod potentsial'nykh selevykh mas-sivov kak faktor, opredelyayushchii strukturno-reologicheskii tip selevogo potoka [Rock composition of potential debris-flows massives as a factor defining struc-tural and rheological type of debris flows]. Trudy Vtoroi konferentsii «Selevye potoki: katastrofy, risk, prognoz, zashchita», posvyashchennoi 100-letiyu S.M. Fleishmana (g. Moskva, 17-19 oktyabrya 2012 goda) [Proceedings of the Second Conference «Debris Flows: Disasters, Risk, Forecast, Protection» dedicated to 100th anniversary of S.M. Fleishman (Moscow, October 17-19, 2012)]. Mos-cow, Publ. Geograficheskii fakul'tet MSU, 2012,
pp. 45-46. (In Russian).
Knunyants I.L. Khimicheskii entsiklopedicheskii slovar' [Chemical Encyclopedic Dictionary]. Moscow, Publ. of Soviet Encyclopedia, 1983. 791 p. (In Russian).
Okhotin V.V. Gruntovedenie [Soil science]. St. Peterburg, Publ. of Center for Genetic Soil Science, 2013. 231 p. (In Russian).
Osipov V.I. Fiziko-khimicheskaya teoriya effektivnykh napryazhenii v gruntakh [Physicochemical theory of effec-tive stresses in soils]. Moscow, Publ. IFZ RAN, 2012. 72 p. (In Russian).
Osipov V.I., Sokolov V.N. Gliny i ikh svoistva: sostav, stroenie i formirovanie svoistv [Clays and their properties: composition, structure and formation of properties]. Mos-cow, Publ. GEOS, 2013. 575 p. (In Russian).
Perov V.F. Selevedenie: uchebnoe posobie. Moscow, Moscow University Press, 2012. 272 p. (In Russian).
Perov V.F. Selevye yavleniya: terminologicheskii slovar' [Mudflows: a terminological dictionary]. Moscow, Mos-cow University Press, 1996. 45 p. (In Russian).
Prokhorov A.M. Fizicheskii entsiklopedicheskii slovar' [Physical Encyclopedic Dictionary] Moscow, Publ. of So-viet Encyclopedia, 1983. 928 p. (In Russian).
Rukovodyashchii dokument RD 52.30.238-90. Rukovod-stvo selestokovym stantsiyam i gidrograficheskim partiyam. Vypusk 1. Organizatsiya i provedenie rabot po izucheniyu selei [Guiding document RD 52.30.238-90. Management of mudflow runoff stations and hydrographic parties. Issue 1. Organization and conduct of work on the study of mud-flows]. Moscow, Gidrometeoizdat Publ., 1990. 200 p. (In Russian).
Sochava V.B. Vvedenie v uchenie o geosistemakh [Intro-duction to the doctrine of geosystems]. Novosibirsk, Publ. Nauka, 1978. 319 p. (In Russian).
Stepanov B.S., Stepanova T.S. Mekhanika selei: eksperi-ment, teoriya, metody rascheta [Mudflow mechanics: ex-periment, theory, calculation methods]. Moscow, Publ. Gidrometeoizdat, 1991. 379 p. (In Russian).
Tsytovich N.A. Mekhanika gruntov (kratkii kurs): ucheb-nik dlya stroit. Vuzov [Soil mechanics (short course): a textbook]. Moscow, Publ. Vysshaya shkola, 1983. 288 p. (In Russian).
Vinogradov Yu.B. Etyudy o selevykh potokakh [Etudes about mud stream]. Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat Publ., 1980. 144 p. (In Russian).
Abstract views: 78 PDF Downloads: 6
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.