THE WATER LEVEL REGIME OF LAKE ILMEN
Researches of changes in the water level of Lake Ilmen are important for studying the development of the river network in its basin, since it is the basis of erosion for them. The purpose of the work was to assess the level regime of Lake Ilmen during the Holocene, including the modern period. The level regime of the lake is determined not only by the inflow of waters from the catchment, but is also regulated by the runoff of the Volkhov River flowing out of it, which, which prior to the construction of the Volkhov Hydroelectric Power Station in 1926, depended on the marks of the Pchevsky and Veletsky rapids in the downstream.
During the Holocene, the marks of the Pchevsky and Veletsky rapids were decreasing, because they been eroded by the Volkhov River. An approximate reconstruction of the change in rapids marks has been carried out, depending on the humidity of the climate in previous centuries. Evaluation of a varying degree humidification over a century / millennium is rather arbitrary and was taken as the ratio of the number of rainy years to years with droughts based on annals data. By the beginning of our era, the minimum water level of the lake was not less than 19.5 m. The maximum water level most likely did not exceeding the mark of 24.5 m, considering the similarity of climate to the last centuries, that is, the amplitude of the water levels was less than modern. Only climatic features determined the water level regime of the lake starting from the second half of the first millennium to the present day.
On the grounds of the fact that the minimum bottom marks of some rivers, flowing into lake Ilmen (in particular Lovat’, Msta and Shelon’), are lower not only than the minimum water level of the lake, but also than the minimum marks of its bottom, we can do a preliminary conclusion that the water level of Lake Ilmen in the past was rather lower than at present and was at modern mark of 16-17 m Baltic system.
Baryshnikov N.B., Popov I.V. Dinamika ruslovykh potokov i ruslovye protsessy: uchebnoe posobie [Dynam-ics of streams and fluviomorphological processes in riv-ers: text-book]. Leningrad, Publ. Gidrometeoizdat, 1988. 454 p. (In Russian; abstract in English).
Borisenkov E.P., Pasetskii V.M. Tysyacheletnyaya letop-is' neobychainykh yavlenii prirody [The thousand-year chronicle of extraordinary natural phenomena]. Mos-cow, Publ. Mysl', 1988. 522 p. (In Russian).
Bylinskii E.N. Vliyanie snizheniya urovnei Il'menskogo i Ladozhskogo ozera na razvitie prodol'nykh profilei pritokov oz. Il'men' i Volkhova [The impact of lower levels of Lake Ilmensky and Ladoga on the develop-ment of longitudinal profiles of tributaries of Lake Ilmen and Volkhova]. Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta: Seri-ya biologii, pochvovedeniya, geologii, geografii [Mos-cow University Bulletin: Series of Biology, Soil Science, Geology, Geography]. 1959, No. 3, pp. 221-231. (In Russian).
Chuvardinskii V.G. O lednikovoi teorii. Proiskhozhdenie obrazovanii lednikovoi formatsii [About glacial theory. The origin of the formations of the glacial formation]. Apatity, 1998. 303 p. (In Russian).
Geologiya SSSR. V 48 tomakh. Tom 1. Leningradskaya, Pskovskaya i Novgorodskaya oblasti. Geologicheskoe opisanie. Severo-Zapadnoe territorial'noe [Geology of the USSR. In 48 volumes. Volume 1. Leningrad, Pskov and Novgorod regions. Geological description. Northwest Territorial] / A.V. Sidorenko (ed.). Moscow, Publ. Nedra, 1971. 504 p. (In Russian).
Gorlach A., Hang T., Kalm V. GIS-based reconstruction of Late Weichselian proglacial lakes in northwestern Russia and Belarus. Boreas, 2017, vol.46, iss.3,
pp. 486-502. DOI: 10.1111/bor.12223.
Grishanin K.V. Dinamika ruslovykh potokov [The dy-namics of channel flows].Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat Publ., 1969. 428 p. (In Russian).
Hughes A.L.C., Gyllencreutz R., Lohne Ø.S., Mangerud J., Svendsen J.I. The last Eurasian ice sheets – a chrono-logical database and time-slice reconstruction, DATED-1. Boreas, 2016, vol. 45, iss.1, pp. 1-45. DOI: 10.1111/bor.12142.
Kvasov D.D. Pozdnechetvertichnaya istoriya krupnykh ozer i vnutrennikh morei Vostochnoi Evropy [Late Qua-ternary history of large lakes and inland seas of Eastern Europe]. Leningrad, Publ. Nauka, 1975. 279 p. (In Rus-sian).
Malakhovskii D.B. Geomorfologicheskie i geologiches-kie nablyudeniya v doline r. Lovat' [Geomorphological and geological observations in the valley of the Lovat river]. Izvestiya Russkogo Geograficheskogo obshchestva [Izvestiya Russkogo geograficheskogo obshestva], 2001, vol. 133, iss. 2, pp. 32-38. (In Russian).
Mnogoletnie dannye o rezhime i resursakh poverkh-nostnykh vod sushi: v 15 t. T. 1. RSFSR: v 26 vyp. Vyp. 5. Basseiny rek Baltiiskogo morya, Ladozhskogo i Onezhskogo ozer [Long-term data on the regime and resources of land surface water: in 15 volumes. Volume 1. RSFSR: in 26 issue. Issue 5. River basins of the Baltic Sea, Ladoga and Onega Lakes]. Leningrad, Publ. Gidrometeoizdat, 1986. 689 p. (In Russian).
Neskoromnykh V.V. Razrushenie gornykh porod pri provedenii geologorazvedochnykh rabot: uchebnoe posobie [Destruction of rocks during exploration: a training manual]. Мoscow, Publ. SPC INFRA-M, 2016, 392 p. (In Russian). DOI: 10.12737/11719
Petrov A.G., Potapov I.I. Sediment transport under normal and tangential bottom stresses with the bottom slope taken into account. Journal of Applied Mechanics and Technical Physics, 2014, vol. 55, iss. 5, pp. 812-817. DOI: 10.1134/S0021894414050101
Resursy poverkhnostnykh vod SSSR: v 20 vol. Vol.2: Ka-reliya i Severo-Zapad: v 2 ch. Chast' 2. Prilozheniya. [Surface water resources of the USSR: in 20 vol. Vol. 2: Karelia and North-West: in Two parts. Part 2. Applica-tions]. Ed. Vodogretskiy V.E. Leningrad, Publ. Gidro-meteoizdat, 1972. 278 p. (In Russian).
Rinterknecht V., Hang T., Gorlach A., Kohv M., Kalla K., Kalm V., Subetto D., Bourlès D., Léanni L., Guillou V. The Last Glacial Maximum extent of the Scandinavi-an Ice Sheet in the Valday Heights, western Russia: Ev-idence from cosmogenic surface exposure dating using 10Be. Quaternary Science Reviews, 2018, vol. 200, pp. 106-113. DOI: 10.1016/j.quascirev.2018.09.032
Shashenko O.M., Pustovoitenko V.P., Sdvizhkova O.O. Geomekhanika: uchebnik [Geomechanics: textbook]. Kiev, Publ. State Higher Educational Institution Nation-al Mining University, 2015. 563 p. (In Russian).
Shuiskii Yu.D., Simeonova G.A. O vliyanii geolog-icheskogo stroeniya morskikh beregov na protsessy abra-zii [On the influence of the geological structure of sea coasts on the processes of abrasion]. Doklady Bolgarskoi Akademii Nauk [Reports of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences], 1976, vol. 29, no 2, pp. 57-79. (In Russian)
Subetto D.A. Istoriya formirovaniya Ladozhskogo ozera i ego soedineniya s Baltiiskim morem [The history of the formation of Lake Ladoga and its connection with the Baltic Sea]. Obshchestvo. Sreda. Razvitie (Terra Hu-mana) [Society. Environment. Development (Terra Nu-mana)], 2007, no 1 (2), pp. 111-120. (In Russian).
Subetto D.A., Shvarev S.V., Nikonov A.A., Zaretska-ya N.E., Poleshchuk A.V., Potakhin M.S. New evidence of the Vuoksi River origin by geodynamic cataclysm. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland, 2018, vol. 90, pp 275-289. DOI: 10.17741/bgsf/90.2.010.
Vasilieva N.V., Subetto D.A., Verbitsky V.R., Krotova-Putintseva A.E. Istoriya formirovaniya Il'men'-Volkhovskogo basseina [History of the Ilmen-Volkhov Basin Development]. Izvestiya Rossiiskogo gosudar-stvennogo pedagogicheskogo universiteta imeni A.I. Gertsena [Izvestia: Herzen University Journal of Humanities & Sciences], 2012, no. 153(2), pp. 141-150. (In Russian; abstract in English).
Vinogradov A.Yu., Obyazov V.A. Glyatsioizostatich-eskoe podnyatie Priil'menskoi nizmennosti v golotsene [Glacio-isostatic uplift of the Priilmen lowland in the Holocene]. Sbornik nauchnykh trudov chetyrnadtsatoi Mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii «Nauchnye issledovaniya: klyuchevye problemy tret'ego tysyacheletiya» (Moskva, 01-02 aprelya 2018) [Collec-tion of scientific papers of the fourteenth International scientific-practical conference "Scientific research: key problems of the third millennium" (Moscow, April 01-02, 2018)], Moscow, Problems of science Publ., 2018, pp. 99-102. (In Russian).
Vinogradov A.Yu., Obyazov V.A., Kadatskaya M.M. Istoriya formirovaniya rek Yuzhnogo Priil'men'ya v golotsene [History of formation of the rivers of south Prilimenium in holotsen]. Gidrosfera. Opasnye protsessy i yavleniya [Hydrosphere. Hazard processes and phe-nomena], 2019, vol. 1, iss. 1, pp. 90-113 (In Russian; abstract in English). DOI: 10.34753/HS.2019.1.1.001
Vinogradov Yu.B. Etyudy o selevykh potokakh [Etudes about mud stream]. Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat Publ., 1980. 144 p. (In Russian).
Zubov V.G. Mekhanika [Mechanics]. Moscow, Publ. Nauka, 1978. 352 p. (In Russian).
Abstract views: 85 PDF Downloads: 3
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.