CALCULATION OF THE MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CLOSURE CHANNEL AND THE EXTREME DISCHARGE DURING BREAKTHROUGHS OF GROUND DAMS
The work is devoted to the calculation of the size of the closure channel in the ground dams when water is poured from the water reservoir through peak and the extreme discharge of the dam break wave.
The authors analyzed the methods of calculation prescribed in regulations and recommended by regulatory authorities. The calculation was made of the morphometric characteristics of the closure channel and extreme discharge of the dam break wave by various methods for specific objects, the comparison with expert estimates of these parameters. It is noted that the method, described in two regulations, has no physical justification, because according to it the size of closure channel and the parameters of breakthrough wave do not depend on the initial volume of water in the reservoir. The calculation method in the third regulation, does not take into account such factor as the time of erosion and the results are different at times with different specified step of erosion depth. This regulation is characterized by the use of empirical relations, which have a rather narrow range of use, and a lack of account of the relationship between the formation of the closure channel and the value of water discharge.
Due to the lack of validity of the recommended calculation methods and large variation with expert estimates prescribed in the regulations, there is a need to create new alternative methods of calculation. This article discusses 2 such methods developed in various organizations. The first of them indirectly takes into account the material of the dam through calculated non-eroding velocity. The second one is based on the physical process of erosion, that is distinguishe it from others.
As a test of the calculated values, there were used data on several recent catastrophic breakthroughs of groundwater dams.
The comparison results allow us to conclude that alternative methods give greater accuracy.
Based on the previous, can be done a preliminary conclusion about the need to revise existing regulations.
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