ON THE INFLUENCE OF ICE COVER ON THE UNDERGROUND COMPONENT OF RIVER FLOW
The river network is the main drainage of underground waters of the territories. It is created over a long period and is determined by geological, climatic and orographic conditions. The draining capacity of a hydrographic network depends not only on its density, but also on the speed of water flowing down it. The latter is determined by the area of the living section, slope, roughness of the riverbed. The article shows that the river ice of the Northern rivers, as a seasonal hydraulic resistance, can also have a significant impact on the drainage capacity of the hydrographic network. On the example of river flow in warm and cold winters, it is shown that the ice cover regulates the participation of groundwater at different levels of drainage in the formation of river flow. As the climate warms, the regulatory role of the ice cover decreases. The rate of underground water treatment in the upper sections of river basins increases, accompanied by an increase in water content in the lower parts of the hydrographic network. Over the past 30-40 years, the contribution of groundwater in the watershed of the river basins to the supply of rivers in the forest zone in mezhen decreased by 20% compared to the previous "quasi-stationary" climate period. There is a "drying" of the upper reaches of river basins, despite the growth of annual precipitation. In the future, if the current trends of climate change continue, it is possible to further reduce the underground supply of rivers, as the drainage role of the hydrographic network will increase. The reduction of groundwater reserves in river basins will reduce their regulatory role in river flow and may increase the frequency of occurrence of extremely low water content. This should be taken into account when developing adaptive water management measures to climate change.
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