ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF CRYOGENIC PHENOMENA AND PROCESSES ON THE SUPPLY OF RUSSIAN RIVERS WITH UNDERGROUND WATER

Section
Fundamental problems of the Earth's hydrosphere
  • Mikhail L. Markov State hydrological Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia
Keywords: minimum winter and summer runoff, underground river feeding, ice, river and seasonal underground ice;, swamps, cryogenic flow regulation, climate change

In a large part of Russia, winter lasts for more than 4 months. This leads to the formation of river and lake ice, underground ice and ice of various types, freezing of soil, etc. All these phenomena affect the flow of rivers to one degree or another. In a warming climate, especially in winter, the flow-forming role of these processes is reduced. Since it has not yet been evaluated, the question of its significance in the hydrological regime is becoming more and more relevant. The purpose of the article is to assess the cumulative impact of many cryogenic phenomena and processes that form and occur in riverbeds, in catchments, swamps and wetlands, in soils, fractured and loose rocks on the underground nutrition of Russian rivers. The methodology is based on the idea that the intra-annual variability of the reservoir reserves of underground aquifers feeding large rivers is insignificant. Based on this, it is assumed that the difference in the supply of rivers with underground water in the winter and summer periods determines the influence of the entire set of cryogenic processes. The difference between the winter and summer inter-soil flow of rivers was determined using maps of the summer and winter minimum 30-day flow of 80% security.

As a result of calculations, it is established that cryogenic phenomena and processes control 492 km3/year of water resources in Russia. Including: in the European territory – 23; the Urals and Western Siberia – 36; Middle, North-Eastern Siberia and the far East – 433 km3/year. In other words, air temperature plays a significant role in the formation of almost 20% of the total annual flow of rivers in Russia's temperate and Northern latitudes with a stable winter. The current and projected increase in winter air temperature in these territories may gradually lead to a weakening of cryogenic regulation of runoff and to noticeable changes in the water regime

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Published
2020-09-03
How to Cite
Mikhail L. Markov. (2020). ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF CRYOGENIC PHENOMENA AND PROCESSES ON THE SUPPLY OF RUSSIAN RIVERS WITH UNDERGROUND WATER. Hydrosphere. Hazard Processes and Phenomena, 2(2), 112-121. https://doi.org/10.34753/HS.2020.2.2.112

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