Hazardous processes in the hydrosphere: fundamental and engineering aspects
  • Nikolay A. Kazakov Special Research Bureau for Automation of Marine Researches, Far Eastern Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Russia
Keywords: avalanche, avalanche catchments, avalanche geosystem, coherent debris-flow, debris-flow, debris-flow basin, debris flow process, debris-flow geosystem, landslide, Moneron Island

On Moneron Island actively develops avalanche, debris-flow and landslide processes. Avalanches with a volume from 25 to 70 000 m3 are formed in avalanche catchments and avalanche slopes with a height of 70-300 m and a steepness of 35°-50°. Avalanches are formed that are associated with recrystallization of the snow column and the formation of weak layers inside it and at time during of snow fall and blizzard. Debris-flow are formed in the numerous streams, in the craters of denudation and landslide cirques and troughs. In small watercourses, connected debris-flows with a volume from 300 to 50 000 m3 and disconnected suspended streams with a volume of up to 1,000 m3 are formed. In large debris-flow are volume more them 50,000 m3. The debris-flow period lasts from April to November. Repeatability of debris-flows of up to 3,000 m3 – 1 time in 5-7 years, debris-flows of more than 10,000 m3 – 1 time in 10-12 years. Surface landslides are formed (volume of 500-5 000 m3) with a depth of capture of rocks up to 2.5 m (mainly on the slopes facing the sea coast with a steepness of
40-50°) in low-power (1.0-2.5 m) deluvial loose deposits of fractured basalts and mudstones. Block landslides in rocks with a volume of
50 000-500 000 m3 or more with a rock capture depth of more than 10 m are formed on the coastal slopes. Block landslides descend during earthquakes and (or) heavy prolonged rains into the sea area and can cause tsunamis that can reach the shores of Sakhalin Island, Hokkaido and the Maritime provinces. On the bodies of old landslides secondary block asequent landslides of slow displacement and landslides of viscoplastic displacement with a volume of 5 000-30 000 m3 with a depth of rock capture up to 10 m develop. The formation of landslides and debris-flows of large volumes and mass formation of landslides and debris-flows occurs when heavy intense precipitation falls after the previous moistening of rocks caused by heavy prolonged rains. Daily precipitation can reach 89.0 mm. In 1914, 4 people was killed in an avalanche in the village of Nagahama; in 1917, 1 person was killed in an avalanche in the village of Nishihama. In September 1957, a landslide destroyed the village of Bodriy. In October 2015, a tourist trail was destroyed by landslides.

Atlas snezhno-ledovykh resursov mira v 2 t. Tom 2: v 2 kn. Kniga 1 [World Atlas of Snow and Ice Resources in 2 volumes. Volume 2: in 2 books. Book 1]. Kotlyakov V.M. (ed.). Moscow, Publ. of General Directorate of Geodesy and Cartography, 1998. 264 p. (In Russian).

Atlas Sakhalinskoi oblasti [Atlas of the Sakhalin Region]. Komsomol'skii G.V., Siryk I.M. (eds.). Moscow, Publ. of General Directorate of Geodesy and Cartography, 1967. 135 p. (In Russian).

Dzyuba V.V. Geograficheskie printsipy razrabotki metodik prognoza lavinoopasnykh periodov dlya maloissledovannykh raionov. Avtoref. diss. kand. geogr. nauk [Geographical principles for the development of techniques for forecasting avalanche periods for little explored areas. Ph. D. (Geography) Thesis]. Moscow, Publ. MSU, 1983. 23 p. (In Russian).

Erokhov V.F., Zhidkova L.S., Litvinenko A.U., Siryk I.M., Shilov V.N. Geologicheskoe stroenie o-va Moneron (Yaponskoe more) [Geological structure of Moneron Island (Sea of Japan)]. Geologiya i geofizika [Geology and Geophysics], 1971, no. 1 (133), pp. 46–57. (In Russian).

Fleishman S.M. Seli. [Debris flow]. Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat Publ., 1978. 312 p. (In Russian).

Geografiya lavin [Geography of Avalanches]. Myagkova S.M., Kanaeva L.A. (eds.). Moscow, Publ. of MSU, 1992. 330 p. (In Russian).

Geologiya SSSR: v 48 t. T. 33. Ostrov Sakhalin: geologicheskoe opisanie [Geology of the USSR: in 48 vol. Vol. 33. Sakhalin Island: geological description] A.V. Sidorenko (ed.). Moscow, Publ. Nedra, 1970. 432 p. (In Russian).

Grannik V.M. Igneous rocks of Moneron Island (Tatar Strait). Doklady Earth Sciences, 2014, vol. 457, no. 1, pp. 781-785. DOI: 10.1134/S1028334X14070058 (Russ. ed.: Grannik V.M. Izverzhennye porody ostrova Moneron (Tatarskij proliv). Doklady Akademii nauk, 2014, vol. 457, no. 1, pp. 64–68).

Kadastr lavin SSSR. Tom 18. Dal'nii Vostok [Cadastre of avalanches of the USSR. Volume 18. The Far East] Kanaev L.A. (ed.). Leningrad, Publ. Gidrometeoizdat, 1988. 122 p. (In Russian).

Kadastr selei SSSR. Tom 18. Dal'nii Vostok, Sakhalin i Kuril'skie ostrova. Vypusk 4 [Cadastre of mudflows of the USSR. Volume 18. Far East, Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands. Issue 4]. Leningrad, Publ. Gidrometeoizdat, 1986. (In Russian).

Karta litologicheskikh kompleksov i proyavlenii ekzogennykh protsessov o. Sakhalin: masshtab 1:500 000 [Map of lithological complexes and manifestations of exogenous processes about. Sakhalin: scale 1: 500 000]. Tyutrin I.I., Sergeev K.F. (eds.). Moscow, Publ. of General Directorate of Geodesy and Cartography, 1984. (In Russian).

Kazakov N.A. Geologicheskie i landshaftnye kriterii ocenki lavinnoj i selevoj opasnosti pri stroitel'stve linejnyh sooruzhenij (na primere o. Sahalin). Diss. kand. geol.-min. nauk. [Geological and landscape criteria for assessing avalanche and debris flow hazard during the construction of linear structures (on the example of Sakhalin Island). Ph. D. (Geological and mineralogical sciences) Thesis]. Moscow, 2000. 216 p. (In Russian).

Kazakov N.A. O formirovanii lavin v lesu [On the formation of avalanches in the forest]. Materialy glyatsiologicheskikh issledovanii [Data of glaciological studies], 2007, publ. 102, pp. 192-196. (In Russian; abstract in English).

Kazakov N.A. Evolyutsiya selevoi geosistemy kak protsess samoorganizatsii uporyadochennykh struktur [Evolution of the debris-flow geosystem as process of self-organization of the ordered structures]. Georisk [Georisk], 2015a, no. 2, pp. 28-30, 60. (in Russian; summary in English)

Kazakov N.A. Geneticheskaya klassifikatsiya lavin i selei [Genetic classification of avalanches and mudflows]. Sbornik materialov Vserossiiskoi nauchnoi konferentsii s mezhdunarodnym uchastiem «Geodinamicheskie protsessy i prirodnye katastrofy. Opyt Neftegorska» (g. Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, 27-30 maya 2015 g.) [Proceedings of the International scientific conference “Geodynamical Processes and Natural Hazards. Lessons of Neftegorsk” (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, May 26-30, 2015)]. Vladivostok: Publ. Dal'nauka, 2015b. Vol. 2. Pp. 316-321. (In Russian).

Kazakov N.A. Usloviya seismogennoi aktivizatsii opolznevykh protsessov na o. Sakhalin [Conditions for seismogenic activation of landslide processes on Sakhalin Island] Sbornik materialov Vserossiiskoi nauchnoi konferentsii s mezhdunarodnym uchastiem «Geodinamicheskie protsessy i prirodnye katastrofy. Opyt Neftegorska» (g. Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, 27-30 maya 2015) [Proceedings of the International scientific conference “Geodynamical Processes and Natural Hazards. Lessons of Neftegorsk” (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, May 26-30, 2015)]. Vladivostok, Publ. Dal'nauka, 2015с. Vol. 2. Pp. 322-326. (In Russian).

Kazakov N.A, Gensiorovskiy J.V., Zhiruev S.P., Drevilo M.S. The stratigraphic complexes of a snowpack. Annals of Glaciology, 2012, vol. 58, iss. 61, pp. 39-44. DOI: 10.3189/2012AoG61A025

Kazakov N.A., Gensiorovskiy J.V., Zhiruev S.P. Litologo-stratigraficheskie kompleksy snezhnogo pokrova [Snow lithostratigraphic complexes]. Kriosfera Zemli [Earth's Cryosphere], 2018, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 72-93 (In Russian; abstract in English). DOI: 10.21782/KZ1560-7496-2018-1(72-93)

Kazakov N.A., Zhiruev S.P. Metodika postroeniya srednemasshtabnykh kart prirodnykh selevykh kompleksov. [Methods for constructing medium-scale maps of natural mudflow complexes]. Prikladnaya geoekologiya, chrezvychainye situatsii i zemel'nyi kadastr [Applied Geoecology, Emergencies and Land Cadastre], 2002, iss. 5, pp. 113-114. (In Russian).

Kazakov N.A, Zhiruev S.P. Taksonomicheskie kategorii prirodnykh selevykh kompleksov (na primere o. Sakhalin) [Taxonomic categories of natural mudflow complexes (on the example of Sakhalin Island)]. Materialy Shestoi vserossiiskoi konferentsii «Otsenka i upravlenie prirodnymi riskami (Risk-2006)» (g. Moskva, 20 aprelya 2006 g.) [Materials of the Sixth All-Russian Conference “Assessment and Management of Natural Risks (Risk-2006)” (Moscow, April 20, 2006)]. Moscow, Publ. RUDN, 2006, pp. 48-50 (In Russian).

Kazakov N.A, Zhiruev S.P., Drevilo M.S. Lavinnye geosistemy o. Sakhalina i Kuril'skikh ostrovov [Avalanche geosystems of Sakhalin Island and Kuril Islands] // Gidrosfera. Opasnye protsessy i yavleniya [Hydrosphere. Hazard processes and phenomena], 2019, vol. 1, iss. 3, pp. 328-380 (In Russian; abstract in English). DOI: 10.34753/HS.2019.1.3.006

Kolomyts E.G. Struktura snega i landshaftnaya indikatsiya [Snow structure and landscape indication]. Moscow, Publ. Nauka, 1976. 206 p. (In Russian).

Kolomyts E.G. Teoriya evolyutsii v strukturnom snegovedenii [The theory of evolution in structural snow studies]. Moscow, Publ. GEOS, 2013. 482 p. (In Russian).

Nauchno-prikladnoi spravochnik po klimatu SSSR: 4 serii. Seriya 3. Mnogoletnie dannye: v 35 vypuskakh. Vypusk 34. Sakhalinskaya oblast' [Scientific-applied reference on the climate of the USSR: 4 series. Series 3. Multi-year data: in 35 issues. Issue 34. Sakhalin Region]. Ivanova G.P. (ed.). Leningrad, Publ. Gidrometizdat, 1990. 351 p. (In Russian).

Perov V.F. Selevedenie: uchebnoe posobie. Moscow, Moscow University Press, 2012. 272 p. (In Russian).

Podolskiy E.A., Izumi K., Suchkov V.E., Eckert N. Physical and societal statistics for a century of snow-avalanche hazards on Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands (1910–2010). Journal of Glaciology, 2014, vol. 60, no. 221, pp. 409-430. DOI: 10.3189/2014JoG13J143.

Razzhigaeva N.G., Pletnev S.P. Geologo-geomorfologicheskii ocherk ostrova Moneron [Geological and geomorphological outline of Moneron Island]. In: Materialy Mezhdunarodnogo Sakhalinskogo proekta «Rastitel'nyi i zhivotnyi mir ostrova Moneron» [Materials of the International Sakhalin Project “Flora and fauna of Moneron Island”]. Vladivostok: Publ. Dal'nauka, 2006, pp. 12-20. (In Russian).

Sabirov R.N., Sabirova N.D., Voronov G.A., Kopanina A.V., Belyanina Ya.P., Zhurov S.D. Prirodnyi park «Ostrov Moneron» [Natural Park "Moneron Island"]. Vestnik Sakhalinskogo muzeya [Bulletin of the Sakhalin Museum], 2011, no. 17, pp. 357-380. (In Russian).

Shchetnikov N.A. Tsunami [Tsunami]. Moscow, Publ. Nauka, 1981. 90 p. (In Russian).

Sheko A.I. Zakonomernosti formirovaniya i prognoz selei [Laws of formation and forecast of mudflows]. Moscow, Publ. Nedra, 1980. 296 p. (In Russian).

Simanenko V.P., Golozoubov V.V., Malinovsky A.I. Monerono-Samarginskaya ostrovoduzhnaya sistema yaponomorskogo regiona [The Moneron-Samarga island arc system of the Japan Sea region]. Litosfera [Lithosphere (Russia)], 2010, no. 3, pp. 60-69. (In Russian; abstract in English).

Spravochnik po klimatu SSSR. Osobo opasnye gidrometeorologicheskie yavleniya. Vypysk 34 [Reference book on the climate of the USSR. Especially dangerous hydrometeorological phenomena. Issue 34]. Lazareva D.F. (ed.). Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Publ. SakhUGKS, 1985. 288 p. (In Russian).

Zemtsova A.I. Klimat Sakhalina [Climate of Sakhalin]. Leningrad, Publ. Gidrometeoizdat, 1968. 197 p. (In Russian).

Abstract views: 9
PDF Downloads: 0
How to Cite
Nikolay A. Kazakov. (2020). AVALANCHES, DEBRIS-FLOWES AND LANDSLIDES ON THE MONERON ISLAND. Hydrosphere. Hazard Processes and Phenomena, 2(2), 122-147. https://doi.org/10.34753/HS.2020.2.2.122


Download data is not yet available.