DEBRIS-FLOWS, MUDFLOWS AND SUBMERGED TREE DRIFTING IN THE PLAINS

Section
Hazardous processes in the hydrosphere: fundamental and engineering aspects
  • Alexey Yu. Vinogradov Scientific and Industrial Research Association Gidrotehproekt, Valday, Russia; Saint Petersburg State Forest Technical University, St. Petersburg, Russia
  • Nikolay A. Kazakov Special Research Bureau for Automation of Marine Researches of the Far Eastern Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Russia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4400-7250
Keywords: debris-flow, debris-flow basin, debris flow process, mudflow, suspended stream, submerged tree stump, submerged tree drifting, plain, critical slope

Traditionally, it is believed that debris-flows are formed only in mountainous areas, and their occurrence in flat areas is impossible. These ideas about the conditions for the development and spread of debris-flow processes are reflected in the Russian Technical Regulations that determine the composition of engineering surveys for construction. In these Regulations, debris-flow and potentially debris-flow areas are identified only in mountainous areas, while flat and hilly areas are shown as non-debris-flow. Debris-flow risks are not calculated for flat and hilly areas both in Russia and in other countries. The vulnerability of objects, structures and territories to the impact of debris-flows is not taken into account either in the development of urban planning documentation, or in the design of objects and structures, or in the development of recreational areas. When designing hydraulic engineering and other structures, the loads created by water flows with a density of up to 1000 kg/m3 are calculated, and not by debris-flows, mudflows and suspended streams with a density of 1100-2000 kg/m3. The results of the research show that the presence, even in local areas, of slopes exceeding (depending on the type of rock) 5°-10°, creates the possibility of incoherent debris-flows (suspended streams) on lowland small rivers. For example, the number of such small rivers in the Novgorod region is 20%. The presence of even local sections with slopes of more than 100‰ on flat rivers creates conditions for the formation of debris-flows and mudflows. Debris-flows and mudflows are formed on plains not only in ravines, but also in the beds of permanent and temporary small watercourses and in erosion furrows on the slopes of hills and river terraces. The density of debris-flows and mudflows of small volumes formed in erosion cuts on the slopes of hills and river terraces can reach 2000 kg/m3, and sediment flows passing through the beds of small rivers-
1100-1200 kg/m3. Submerged tree drifting on small watercourses in its composition are not water streams, and the incoherent debris flows.

Alexey Yu. Vinogradov,
Scientific and Industrial Research Association Gidrotehproekt, Valday, Russia; Saint Petersburg State Forest Technical University, St. Petersburg, Russia

E-mail: gd@npogtp.ru
eLibrary (РИНЦ) SPIN-код: 3692-8409
Scopus ID: 56909443300
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6834-2507

Nikolay A. Kazakov,
Special Research Bureau for Automation of Marine Researches of the Far Eastern Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Russia

E-mail: cdsmd@yandex.ru
eLibrary SPIN-код: 3869-6750
Scopus ID: 55771991700

Aizenberg M.M., Gracheva L.N. Selevye potoki na yuge i yugo-zapade evropeiskoi territorii Sovetskogo Soyuza [Mudflows in the south and southwest of the European territory of the Soviet Union]. Trudy Ukrainskogo nauchno-issledovatel'skogo gidrometeorologicheskogo institute [Proceedings of the Ukrainian Research Hydrometeorological Institute], 1975, iss. 140, pp. 148-161. (In Russian).

Aizenberg M.M., Semenikhina A.S. K prirode antropogennykh selei [To the nature of anthropogenic mudflows]. Trudy Ukrainskogo nauchno-issledovatel'skogo gidrometeoro-logicheskogo institute [Proceedings of the Ukrainian Research Hydrometeorological Institute], 1978, iss. 168, pp. 109-114. (In Russian).

Bodrov V.A. Problema bor'by s eroziei pochv v raione Kanevskikh dislokatsii [The problem of combating soil erosion in the region of Kanev's dislocations]. Materialy Vsesoyuznogo soveshchaniya po bor'be s eroziei pochv, (g. Moskva, 12-16 dekabrya 1955) [Materials of the All-Union meeting on combating soil erosion, (Moscow, December 12-16, 1955)], Moscow, Publ. Sel'khozgiz, 1957, pp. 369-378. (In Russian).

Brylev V.A. Sovremennye geodinamicheskie protsessy na territorii Volgogradskoi aglomeratsii [Modern geodynamic processes on the territory of the Volgograd agglomeration]. Sbornik materialov trinadtsatogo plenarnogo mezhvuzovskogo koordinatsionnogo soveshchaniya po probleme erozionnykh, ruslovykh i ust'evykh protsessov (g. Pskov, 13-15 oktyabrya 1998 g.) [Collection of materials of the thirteenth plenary interuniversity coordination meeting on the problem of erosion, channel and estuarine processes (Pskov, October 13-15, 1998)], Pskov, Publ. of Pskov state university, 1998, pp. 178-179. (In Russian).

Chernomorets S.S. Selevye issledovaniya v Rossii i stranakh byvshego Sovetskogo Soyuza: istoriya i perspektivy [Debris flow research in Russia and Former Soviet Union: history and perspectives]. Trudy Mezhdunarodnoi elektronnoi konferentsii «Izmeneniya prirodnoi sredy na rubezhe tysyacheletii» [Proceedings of International Internet Conference “Change of Environment at the Turn of the Millennium”], Tbilisi-Moscow, 2006, p. 67-75. (In Russian; abstract in English).

Domogashev V.N. Proektirovanie mostovykh perekhodov v usloviyakh karchekhoda [Design of bridge crossings in the conditions of a submerged tree driftings]. Tezisy dokladov i soobshchenii regional'noi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii Osnovnye napravleniya povysheniya effektivnosti i kachestva kapital'nogo stroitel'stva v Krasnoyarskom krae (g. Krasnoyarsk, 10-12 iyunya 1982) [Abstracts of reports and messages of the regional scientific and practical conference The main directions of increasing the efficiency and quality of capital construction in the Krasnoyarsk Territory (Krasnoyarsk, June 10-12, 1982)], Krasnoyarsk, 1982, part 3, pp. 12-13. (In Russian).

Drozd N.I. Gryazevye potoki v ovrazhnykh raionakh Ukrainy [Mud flows in ravine regions of Ukraine]. Materialy pyatogo Vsesoyuznogo soveshchaniya po izucheniyu selevykh potokov i mer bor'by s nimi [Materials of the Fifth All-Union meeting on the study of mud flows and measures to combat them], Baku, Publ. of Academy of Sciences of the Azerbaijan SSR, 1962, pp. 94-98. (In Russian).

Eshchenko N.D., Kutovoi S.S., Shpak I.S. Vliyanie khozyaistvennoi deyatel'nosti na zailenie rechnykh dolin [The influence of economic activity on the siltation of river valleys]. In Perekhrest S.M. (ed.) Vliyanie khozyaistvennoi deyatel'nosti na vodnyi balans [The influence of economic activity on the water balance], Kiev, 1969, pp. 87-104. (In Russian).

Kazakov N.A., Gensiorovskii Yu.V. Pavodki na malykh rekakh nizkogor'ya Yuyuzhnogo i Srednego Sakhalina kak nesvyaznye selevye potoki [Floods on small rivers of southern and middle Sakhalin Island as incoherent debris-flows: the suspended streams Debris Flows: Disasters, Risk, Forecast, Protection]. Trudy Vtoroi konferentsii «Selevye potoki: katastrofy, risk, prognoz, zashchita», posvyashchennoi 100-letiyu S.M. Fleishmana (g. Moskva, 17-19 oktyabrya 2012) [Proceedings of the Second Conference «Debris Flows: Disasters, Risk, Forecast, Protection» dedicated to 100th anniversary of S.M. Fleishman (Moscow, October 17-19, 2012)], Moscow, Publ. of Faculty of Geography MSU, 2012, pp. 49-50. (In Russian; abstract in English).

Kozmenko A.S. Bor'ba s eroziei pochv na sel'skokhozyaistvennykh ugod'yakh [Combating soil erosion on agricultural land]. Moscow, Publ. Selkhozgizdat, 1963. 208 p. (In Russian).

Laperdin V.K., Kachura R.A. Geodinamika opasnykh protsessov v zonakh prirodno-tekhnogennykh kompleksov Vostochnoi Sibiri [The geodynamics of hazardous processes in the zones of natural-technical complexes of East Siberia]. Irkutsk, Publ. of Institute of the Earth's Crust SB RAS, 2010. 311 p. (In Russian).

Levadnyuk A.T. Osobennosti razvitiya ovrazhnoi erozii v opolznevykh raionakh Moldavii [Features of the development of gully erosion in landslide regions of Moldova]. Tezisy dokladov Chetvertoi Vsesoyuznoi nauchnoi konferentsii «Zakonomernosti proyavleniya erozionnykh i ruslovykh protsessov v razlichnykh prirodnykh usloviyakh» (g. Moskva, 24-26 dekabrya 1987) [Abstracts of the Fourth All-Union Scientific Conference "Patterns of manifestation of erosion and channel processes in various natural conditions" (Moscow, December 24-26, 1987)]. Moscow, Publ. of MSU, 1987, pp. 155. (In Russian).

Lyubimov B.P. Selevye potoki v ovragakh na Satinskom poligone MGU [Mudflows in ravines at the Satinsky test site of Moscow State University]. Doklady i soobshcheniya 16-ogo plenarnogo mezhvuzovskogo koordinatsionnogo soveshchaniya po probleme erozionnykh, ruslovykh i ust'evykh protsessov (g. Sankt-Peterburg, 2-4 oktyabrya 2001) [Reports and messages of the 16th plenary interuniversity coordination meeting on the problem of erosion, channel and estuarine processes (St. Petersburg, October 2-4, 2001)], St. Petersburg, Publ. MSU-SPbGUVK, 2001, pp. 150-151. (In Russian).

Lyubimov B.P., Perov V.F. Selevye potoki v ovragakh ravnin [Mudflows in the ravines of the plains]. Vestnik MGU. Seriya 5. Geografiya [Vestnik MSU. Series 5. Geography], 2001, no. 3, pp. 56-62. (In Russian; abstract in English).

Perov V.F. Selevye yavleniya na territorii SSSR [Mudflows in the USSR]. Moscow, Publ. of VINITI, 1989, 147 p. (In Russian).

Perov V.F. Selevedenie: uchebnoe posobie. Mos-cow, Moscow University Press, 2012. 272 p. (In Russian).

Proka V.E. Budushchee prirody agropromyshlen-nogo raiona [The future of nature in the agro-industrial region]. Kishinev, Publ. Shtiintsa, 1983. 237 p. (In Russian).

Proka V.E., Yakovlev V.M. O selevykh yavleni-yakh na territorii Moldavii [About mudflows on the territory of Moldova]. Okhrana prirody Molda-vii [Nature Protection of Moldova], 1969, iss. 7, pp. 15-23. (In Russian).

Sal'nikov P.I. Ovragoobrazovanie, selevye pavodki i peschanye zanosy v gorodakh Zabaikal'ya i bor'ba s nimi [Gully formation, mudflows and sand drifts in the cities of Transbaikalia and the fight against them]. Zapiski Zabaikal'skogo otdela Vsesoyuznogo geograficheskogo obshchestva SSSR [Notes of the Transbaikal Department of the All-Union Geo-graphical Society of the USSR], 1963, iss. 22, pp. 77-92. (In Russian).

Shoigu S.K. (ed.) Atlas prirodnykh i tekhnogennykh opasnostei i riskov chrezvychainykh situatsii Rossiiskoi Federatsii [Atlas of natural and man-made hazards and risks of emergencies in the Russian Federation]. Moscow, Publ. “Dizain. Informatsiya. Kartografiya”, 2010. 696 p. (In Russian).

Shvebs G.I. Selevye yavleniya v negornykh raionakh Ukrainy [Mudflows in non-mountainous regions of Ukraine]. Meteorologiya, klimatologiya i gidrologiya [Meteorology, climatology and hydrology], 1969, iss. 5, pp. 181-186. (In Russian).

Slastikhin V.V. Selevye potoki Moldavskogo Pridnestrov'ya [Mudflows of Moldavian Transnistria]. Materialy Pervoi Nauchnoi konferentsii po problemam razvitiya i razmeshcheniya proizvodit. sil Pridnestrov'ya «Problemy ispol'zovaniya prirodnykh bogatstv i okhrany prirody» [Materials of the First Scientific Conference on the Problems of Development and Distribution of the Productive Forces of Transnistria "Problems of Using Natural Resources and Environmental Protection"], Lvov, Publ. Kamenyar, 1969, pp. 30-32. (In Russian).

Slastikhin V.V. Protsess erozii na seleaktivnykh vodosborakh v Moldavii [The process of erosion on mudflow catchments in Moldova]. Tezisy dokladov Chetvertoi Vsesoyuznoi nauchnoi konferentsii «Zakonomernosti proyavleniya erozionnykh i ruslovykh protsessov v razlichnykh prirodnykh usloviyakh» (g. Moskva, 24-26 dekabrya 1987) [Abstracts of the Fourth All-Union Scientific Conference "Patterns of manifestation of erosion and channel processes in various natural conditions" (Moscow, December 24-26, 1987)], Moscow, Publ. of MSU, 1987, pp. 136-137. (In Russian).

Vinogradov Yu.B. Etyudy o selevykh potokakh [Sketches about mudflows]. Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat Publ., 1980. 143 p. (In Russian).

Vinogradov A.Yu., Kadatskaya M.M., Birman A.R., Vinogradova T.A., Obyazov V.A., Katsadze V.A., Ugryumov S.A., Bacherikov I.V., Kovalenko T.V., Khvalev S.V., Parfenov E.A. Raschet nerazmyvayushchikh skorostei vodnogo potoka na vysote verkhnei granitsy pogranichnogo sloya [Calculation of non-eroding water flow velocities at the height of the upper boundary layer]. Resources and Technology [Resources and Technology], 2019, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 44‒61. DOI: 10.15393/j2.art.2019.4782. (In Russian; abstract in English).

Vinogradov A.Yu., Vinogradova T.A. Selevye yavleniya na ravninnykh territoriyakh (na primere Novgorodskoi oblasti) [Mudflows in flat areas (on the example of the Novgorod region)]. Materialy Сhetvertoi Mezhdunarodnoi konferentsii «Selevye potoki: katastrofy, risk, prognoz, zashchita.» (g. Irkutsk, 6-10 sentyabrya 2016) [Materials of Forth International Conference "Debris flows: risks, forecast, protection" (Irkutsk, September

-10, 2016)], Irkutsk: Publ. of the Institute of Geography SB RAS, 2016, pp. 50-54. (In Russian).

Vol'ftsun I.B., Krestovskii O.I. Katastroficheskii livnevoi pavodok na Valdae [Catastrophic flash flood in Valdai]. Meteorologiya i gidrologiya [Russian Meteorology and Hydrology], 1961, no. 1, pp. 40-43. (In Russian; abstract in English).

Yablonskii V.V. Sel' v Kieve [Mud in Kiev]. Svet. Priroda i chelovek [Light. Nature and man], 1991, no. 7, pp. 32-33. (In Russian).

Zorina E.F. (ed.) Geografiya ovrazhnoi erozii [Geography of gully erosion]. Moscow, Publ. of MSU, 2006. 323 p. (In Russian).


Abstract views: 45
PDF Downloads: 0
Published
2020-09-30
How to Cite
Alexey Yu. Vinogradov, & Nikolay A. Kazakov. (2020). DEBRIS-FLOWS, MUDFLOWS AND SUBMERGED TREE DRIFTING IN THE PLAINS. Hydrosphere. Hazard Processes and Phenomena, 2(3), 228-245. https://doi.org/10.34753/HS.2020.2.3.228

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.