Hydrosphere. Hazard processes and phenomena http://hydro-sphere.ru/index.php/hydrosphere Для почтовых отправлений: 199155 Санкт-Петербург, а/я 136, Редакция журнала «Гидросфера. Опасные процессы и явления» / For mail: 199155 St. Petersburg, PO Box 136 Editorial Board of the «Hydrosphere. Hazardous processes and phenomena». en-US Hydrosphere. Hazard processes and phenomena 2686-7877 DEBRIS FLOW CHECK CONSTRUCTIONS SITUATED NEAR THE MOUTH OF RIVERS OF THE SAKHALIN ISLAND http://hydro-sphere.ru/index.php/hydrosphere/article/view/43 <p>The significant part of roads and railways of the Sakhalin Island are located in the coastal zone of the sea, in the lower part of the debris flow transit zone. Debris flows cause blockages and damage to the roadways. In some areas of the island are sites where the number of debris flow basins is 30-40 per km. Basically, these are slope debris flows, which are formed annually during precipitation of liquid precipitation, and whose volume can reach 500 m<sup>3</sup>. At the same time, debris flows can play an important role in the formation of beaches and protection from abrasion due to the removal of material to the mouth of the rivers. Transport of debris flow material to the coastal zone on the Sakhalin Island is carried out on the coasts of the Gulf of Patience, the Gulf of Aniva, the Tatar Strait, etc. Beach savings are the best of its natural protection against destruction. Therefore, the need to build seepage facilities is due not only to the need to protect the roadway, but also the importance of transporting debris flow material to the beach area. Characteristics of debris flows in the coastal zone of the island differ in a number of parameters, such as the volume of debris slides, the frequency of formation of debris flows, the type of debris flows, the size of carried fragments of rocks; therefore, when choosing a debris flow protection facility, it is necessary to be guided both by the parameters of debris flows and by the role of debris flows in the formation of beaches. The paper examines the current state of water chute and debris flows chute under the roads in the near-mouth parts of debris flow rivers, as well as the expediency of selecting debris flow protection structures depending on the characteristics of debris flows.</p> Darya A. Bobrova Ekaterina N. Kazakova Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-04-07 2020-04-07 2 1 8 18 10.34753/HS.2020.2.1.8 MODERN TECHNOGENESIS OF THE WORLD OCEAN: NATURE OF PROCESSES AND ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS http://hydro-sphere.ru/index.php/hydrosphere/article/view/44 <p>The condition of the World Ocean has always been the most important factor living conditions of all Biosphere. For this reason change of its hydrological structure and properties during past geological eras repeatedly led to global ecological crises and extinction of the majority of the organisms existing at that time. The modern technogenesis of the World Ocean can have similar catastrophic consequences. The development of this crisis will take place in a hopping manner. At its first stage, the consequences of technogenic transformation are localized within the boundaries of individual sections of the World Ocean. But their number is constantly increasing. At a certain point in time, the cumulative effect of this process for a relatively short time can cause the destruction of the World Ocean as a single system, and its transition to a new state. This will inevitably disrupt conditions in most parts of the planet, and will cause a global ecological and socio-economic crisis. At the same time, it is impossible to stop the process of technogenesis of the World Ocean under the conditions of continuous growth of the Earth’s population and its need for natural resources. The only real way to prevent catastrophic consequences is to develop mechanisms for controlling the processes of technogenesis. In practice, this problem can be solved by creating managed natural-technical systems. In these systems, enabling ecological conditions and biodiversity conservation are ensured by the operation of technical facilities ‑ ecological regulators.</p> Antonina L. Suzdaleva Victor N. Beznosov Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-04-07 2020-04-07 2 1 19 31 10.34753/HS.2020.2.1.19 THE USE OF UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES FOR MONITORING THE CONDITION OF OWNERLESS FLOOD CONTROL HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES OF THE TRANS-BAIKAL TERRITORY http://hydro-sphere.ru/index.php/hydrosphere/article/view/45 <p>There are a large number of ownerless flood control protective hydraulic structures built without proper design and correct observance of the production technology in the Trans-Baikal Territory. Some dams do not have owners and are not registered in the «Register of hydraulic structures», their condition and mode of use are not controlled. During operation, protective dams are subjected to mechanical and hydrodynamic influences, which carries an increased risk of additional damage due to the overestimated level of protection of the territories. It is necessary to take into account such structures in order to make recommendations for their further use or repair.</p> <p>This article describes the experience of using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for examining ownerless flood control protective hydraulic structures of the Trans-Baikal Territory. The scheme of conducting such surveys, which includes several stages, is considered. At the initial stage, the installation of ground reference points markers and their coordination is required. Then, the UAV is circled over the territory and a series of photographs is taken. The next step involves photogrammetric processing of the survey data and obtaining spatially-linked terrain and orthomosaic models, which are then analyzed to identify structural defects.</p> <p>The use of UAVs during the inspection of flood control structures demonstrated the possibility of a better assessment of their condition compared to traditional instrumental observation methods. To obtain the best result in the simulation, it is recommended to shoot from a height of not more than 200&nbsp;m and use coordinated reference points that are visible from the air to bind the model to the coordinate system. In this case, the error in determining the elevation of the earth’s surface will not exceed the spatial resolution of the image. The location of the control points does not significantly affect the accuracy of determining the terrain model.</p> Konstantin A. Kurganovich Andrey V. Shalikovskiy Maxim A. Bosov Denis V. Kochev Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-04-07 2020-04-07 2 1 32 43 10.34753/HS.2020.2.1.32 RELATION OF EXTREMES OF MINIMUM WINTER RIVER FLOW WITH TEMPERATURE AND ICE FACTORS http://hydro-sphere.ru/index.php/hydrosphere/article/view/46 <p>Studies performed in different river basins in the North-West of Russia have shown that a combination of temperature and ice conditions plays a significant role in changing the winter water content of rivers.</p> <p>Air temperature and ice thickness are integral indicators of changes in thermal conditions in the river basin and in the river, regulating through cryogenic processes the supply of groundwater and its discharge into rivers in winter. Therefore, the main predictors used in the work are air temperature, ice thickness, and winter river flow. To obtain quantitative estimates, a comparative analysis of changes in river flow by the end of winter under different temperature and ice conditions was performed. The series of winter runoff of rivers in the basins of the Lovat, Syas, Northern Dvina and Onega rivers with the total period of observations of the runoff and the thickness of the river ice are analyzed –1955-2016 years, temperature – 1936-2016 years.</p> <p>Based on the analysis of a series of observations of river flow, ice thickness, and air temperature lasting more than 50 years, it is concluded that the lowest values of the minimum winter flow of rivers were observed in cold winters, and the highest values were observed in milder winter seasons. With comparable pre-winter water content of rivers in a series of mild non-thawing winters, river flow in the studied basins decreased less intensively and the minimum winter flow was higher on average by 10-20%, and in some cases more.</p> Elena V. Gurevich Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-04-07 2020-04-07 2 1 44 52 10.34753/HS.2020.2.1.44 A UNIFIED ASSESSMENT OF THE QUANTITY AND QUALITY OF THE SEIM RIVER WATER FLOW USING NEW AUTOMATED TECHNOLOGY http://hydro-sphere.ru/index.php/hydrosphere/article/view/47 <p>Water quality is currently being evaluated regardless of the amount of water flow. Therefore, for the water industry, it is especially important to obtain a unified assessment of the quantity and quality of river water flow. Using the automated software package “Assessment of Polluted and Clean Runoff Indicators” developed at the State Hydrological Institute, it became possible to jointly process large volumes of standard hydrochemical and hydrological observation data at the posts. The first part of automated software package allows you to divide the volume of river flow by a single ingredient into pure when its concentration in the effluent does not exceed the maximum permissible concentrations (MPC), and into polluted when it is higher than the MPC. The main indicator of the quality of river water runoff in this method is the relative volume of runoff contaminated with a single ingredient. In the second part of automated software package, the annual volume of river flow is divided into partial volumes of various durations that differ in the composition of the complex of pollutants, and their degree of pollution is estimated by classes in accordance with ANON (2002) 52.24.643-2002<sup>1</sup>. The estimates obtained are presented as a “flow quality certificate”. Based on the data on water quality monitoring of the Department of Hydrometeorological Service of the Central Black Soil Regions, using the automated software package, the quality of runoff for single chemicals and their complexes was estimated in the border hydrochemical observation point of the Seim River – Tetkino village. Observation period is from 1993 to 2013.</p> El'vira А. Rumyantseva Nelly N. Bobrovitskaya Ekaterina S. Sukhonogova Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-04-07 2020-04-07 2 1 53 70 10.34753/HS.2020.2.1.53 SPECIALITY OF LOW RELEASE CALCULATIONS ON SMALL RIVERS ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE OREDEZH RIVER http://hydro-sphere.ru/index.php/hydrosphere/article/view/48 <p>The article regards the movement of the negative and positive release waves from the reservoir on the Oredezh River. There was a model of unsteady water motion used for calculation the spread of the release wave. The release was conducted on 06/19/2017 and consisted of three phases. In the first phase, the gate was closed and the water discharge fell from 3.6 to 2.5 m<sup>3</sup>/s. An hour later the gate was raised and during a half an hour water was released with an average flow rate of 4.2 m<sup>3</sup>/s. There were 7 points organized to monitor the dynamics of water levels in the river. They were located at a distance of 91.5 to 2443 m from the dam. The observation interval was 1 minute on most targets.</p> <p>There is advisable to use a one-dimensional model of unsteady water motion (Saint-Venant equation) for calculating small release waves of slowly changing unsteady water motion in cases where topographic materials are available. This allows to determine the stream features over the whole considered river extension. The system of difference equations is solved by the tridiagonal matrix algorithm. The values of the water discharge and water levels for the next estimated time interval are obtained along the entire channel as a result of this shuttle.</p> <p>The experiment indicated that the used model makes it possible to calculate the unsteady water movement on small rivers with releases comparable to the initial water discharge and even less. The maximum variences between the measured and calculated water levels during the negative wave did not exceed 15.0 cm, and the positive one – 4.0 cm.</p> Alexey Yu. Vinogradov Tatiana А. Vinogradova Viktor A. Obyazov Vitaly А. Khaustov Ivan А. Vinogradov Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-04-07 2020-04-07 2 1 71 81 10.34753/HS.2020.2.1.71 NON-ERODING WATER VELOCITIES FOR INCOHERENT BOTTOM SEDIMENTS http://hydro-sphere.ru/index.php/hydrosphere/article/view/49 <p>There are the values of non-eroding water velocities for various types of bottom sediments (incoherent and cohesive) given in the normative documentation in the form of tables and graphs. Also there are a number of regulatory documents containing methods for calculation such velocities. These methods are based on empirical dependencies adapted to specific conditions. The calculated mean non-eroding water velocities are proportional to the depth of flow and bottom particle size in the case of incoherent bottom sediments erosion.</p> <p>The authors made an attempt to estimate non-eroding water velocity by a physical approach to the problem depending on the internal friction angle, the calculated clutch of incoherent bottom sediments and the depth of the water over the bottom. This approach should be universal.</p> <p>An analysis of the results indicated that the proposed formula for calculating bottom non-eroding water velocities in all considered cases gives results significantly higher than the values given in the regulatory documents for the corresponding size of incoherent bottom sediments. As a result authors obtained non-eroding water velocities, which were overestimated at times on the basis of expert evaluation. When the depth changes from 0.5 to 10 m, the spread of estimated bottom velocities varies from 14 to 22%, depending on the size of the incoherent soil.</p> <p>It was concluded that for smaller particles of incoherent soil, the less deviation of the calculated values of bottom non-eroding water velocities from the normative ones (for massive gravel sands at a 10 m flow depth, the deviation from the normative values reaches 375-510%). In addition, the dependence of the value bottom non-eroding water velocity on the depth is traced, which is not provided in regulatory documents.</p> <p>The authors offer the scientific community to join to discussion of the reasons for these discrepancies.</p> Alexey Yu. Vinogradov Viktor A. Obyazov Tatiana А. Vinogradova Mariya M. Kadatskaya Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-04-07 2020-04-07 2 1 82 89 10.34753/HS.2020.2.1.82