RELATION OF EXTREMES OF MINIMUM WINTER RIVER FLOW WITH TEMPERATURE AND ICE FACTORS

Section
Methods, models and technologies
  • Elena V. Gurevich State hydrological Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia
Keywords: cold and warm winters, winter river flow, river flow hydrographs, pre- winter water content of rivers, air temperature, ice thickness

Studies performed in different river basins in the North-West of Russia have shown that a combination of temperature and ice conditions plays a significant role in changing the winter water content of rivers.

Air temperature and ice thickness are integral indicators of changes in thermal conditions in the river basin and in the river, regulating through cryogenic processes the supply of groundwater and its discharge into rivers in winter. Therefore, the main predictors used in the work are air temperature, ice thickness, and winter river flow. To obtain quantitative estimates, a comparative analysis of changes in river flow by the end of winter under different temperature and ice conditions was performed. The series of winter runoff of rivers in the basins of the Lovat, Syas, Northern Dvina and Onega rivers with the total period of observations of the runoff and the thickness of the river ice are analyzed –1955-2016 years, temperature – 1936-2016 years.

Based on the analysis of a series of observations of river flow, ice thickness, and air temperature lasting more than 50 years, it is concluded that the lowest values of the minimum winter flow of rivers were observed in cold winters, and the highest values were observed in milder winter seasons. With comparable pre-winter water content of rivers in a series of mild non-thawing winters, river flow in the studied basins decreased less intensively and the minimum winter flow was higher on average by 10-20%, and in some cases more.

Elena V. Gurevich,
State hydrological Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia

Studies performed in different river basins in the North-West of Russia have shown that a combination of temperature and ice conditions plays a significant role in changing the winter water content of rivers.

Air temperature and ice thickness are integral indicators of changes in thermal conditions in the river basin and in the river, regulating through cryogenic processes the supply of groundwater and its discharge into rivers in winter. Therefore, the main predictors used in the work are air temperature, ice thickness, and winter river flow. To obtain quantitative estimates, a comparative analysis of changes in river flow by the end of winter under different temperature and ice conditions was performed. The series of winter runoff of rivers in the basins of the Lovat, Syas, Northern Dvina and Onega rivers with the total period of observations of the runoff and the thickness of the river ice are analyzed –1955-2016 years, temperature – 1936-2016 years.

Based on the analysis of a series of observations of river flow, ice thickness, and air temperature lasting more than 50 years, it is concluded that the lowest values of the minimum winter flow of rivers were observed in cold winters, and the highest values were observed in milder winter seasons. With comparable pre-winter water content of rivers in a series of mild non-thawing winters, river flow in the studied basins decreased less intensively and the minimum winter flow was higher on average by 10-20%, and in some cases more.

Chizhov A.N. Formirovanie ledyanogo pokrova i prostranstvennoe raspredelenie ego tolshchiny [Ice pack formation and space distribution of the ice pack depth]. Leningrad, Publ. Gidrometeoizdat, 1990. 125 p. (In Russian; abstract in English).

Gurevich E.V. Winter severity effects on the nonuniformity of winter flow formation in a river basin. Russian Meteorology and Hydrology, 2012, vol. 37, iss. 7, pp. 495-500. (Russ ed.: Gurevich E.V. Vliyanie surovosti zimy na neravnomernost' formirovaniya zimnego stoka v rechnom basseine. Meteorologija i gidrologija, 2012, no. 7, pp. 92-99). DOI: 10.3103/S1068373912070096

Markov M.L., Gurevich E.V. O reguliruyushchei roli ledyanogo pokrova rek v vodnom rezhime territorii [On the regulatory role of river ice cover in the water regime of territories]. Materialy vserossiiskoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii s mezhdunarodnym uchastiem «Vodokhozyaistvennye problemy i ratsional'noe prirodopol'zovanie» (g. Orenburg, 13-15 marta 2008) [Proceedings of the All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference with international participation “Water management problems and rational nature management” (Orenburg, March 13-15, 2008)]. Orenburg: GOU OGU. Perm': Permskii universitet, 2008, vol. 1, pp. 193-198. (In Russian).

Magnuson J.J., Wynne R.H., Benson B.J., Robertson D.M. Lake and river ice as a powerful indicator of past and present climates. Internationale Vereinigung für Theoretische und Angewandte Limnologie: Verhandlungen, 2000, vol. 27, iss. 5, pp. 2749-2756. DOI: 10.1080/03680770.1998.11898166

Markov M.L., Gurevich E.V. Negativnoe vliyanie potepleniya zim na raskhody rek i urovni dreniruemykh imi gruntovykh vod [The negative impact of wintering warming on river flows and levels of groundwater drained by them]. Nezavisimyi elektronnyi zhurnal «GeoInfo» [Independent electronic journal "GeoInfo"], 2018. Available at: https://clck.ru/MNkLd (In Russian).

Smith L.C., Pavelsky T.M., MacDonald G.M., Shiklomanov A.I., Lammers R.B. Rising minimum flows in northern Eurasian rivers: A growing influence of groundwater in the high‐latitude hydrologic cycle. Journal of Geophysical Research. Biogeosciences, 2007, vol. 112, iss. G4, G04S47. DOI: 10.1029/2006JG000327

Sokolov B.L., Chernaya F.F. Otsenka ezhegodnykh poter' zimnego stoka na obrazovanie rechnykh naledei i rechnogo l'da (na primere Severo-Vostoka SSSR) [Estimation of annual losses of winter runoff on the formation of river ice and river ice (on the example of the North-East of the USSR)]. Trudy Gosudarstvennogo gidrologicheskogo instituta. Vypusk 300. Issledovaniya podzemnogo stoka [Transactions of the State Hydrological Institute. Issue 300. Underground Flow Research]. Leningrad, Publ. Gidrometeoizdat, 1984, pp. 50-61. (In Russian).

Sokolov B.L., Lyubimov G.A. Ledyanoi pokrov i zimnii stok rek vostochnoi chasti BAMa [Ice cover and winter runoff of rivers of the eastern part of BAM]. In Dobroumov B.M. (ed.) Trudy Gosudarstvennogo gidrologicheskogo instituta. Vypusk 312. Voprosy gidrologii BAMa [Transactions of the State Hydrological Institute. Issue 312. Issues of Hydrology of BAM]. Leningrad, Publ. Gidrometeoizdat, 1986, pp.11-33. (In Russian).


Abstract views: 89
PDF Downloads: 0
Published
2020-04-07
How to Cite
Elena V. Gurevich. (2020). RELATION OF EXTREMES OF MINIMUM WINTER RIVER FLOW WITH TEMPERATURE AND ICE FACTORS. Hydrosphere. Hazard Processes and Phenomena, 2(1), 44-52. https://doi.org/10.34753/HS.2020.2.1.44

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.