NATURAL RISKS AND STRATEGY OF THE WATER AVAILABILITY RESEARCH OF TERRITORIES
According to the “Water strategy” accepted by the Government of Russian Federation in 2009, risks of the negative influence of natural water on the environment mostly are related with the peak flood runoff. The water deficit is not in the list of risks.
The water deficit has begun to increase during the past decades even in humid zones mainly due to the climate change. Therefore, there is a necessity to assess reasons and trends of water regimes and water resources changes for different territories.
The twofold of the runoff distribution in the different chains of the river network displayed for the modern decades. The low flows in the lower river chains (so-called “the large rivers”) increased substantially since 1987-1990. The same situation was in “the small rivers” until 2000’s, but low flows there became decrease later (however, it is still more than it was during 1950-1970’s). The favorable conditions of the water leakage keeping for the long period had led to the disturbance of the water balance components, when water leakage in rivers became exceed their feeding, and water has “outflow” from the basins of small rivers.
Nonsynchronous changes of the water regimes of river net chains of different order can’t be explained by “global approaches” to the climate changes. Therefore, there is a different suggested way to solve this problem, related to nonlinear reaction of the river basins water system to the climate long-term variations, when one quasi-stationary conditions (definite relative stable period of climate conditions) change to another.
It is useful to add to “The water strategy” more detailed hydrological basis. It should include all aspects of the standard and special hydrological network development, problems of the scientific study hydrological processes, spatial-temporary nonuniformity of the different order river basins water turnover reaction on the climate change.
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