STATE REGULATION OF AVALANCHE DANGER ASSESSMENT IN RUSSIA
In Russia, the types of activities that include the assessment of avalanche danger (activity) are licensed by the government, with the exception of that when the assessments are carried out for construction, which is regulated by self-regulating organizations. But even in this case, a number of standards and rules are established by state bodies. Experience in assessing of avalanche danger during surveys, operational forecasting and for the artificial avalanche releases shows that all methods are far from perfect, and some of them contains significant errors. The quality of the methods for calculating the avalanche velocities and runout distances, avalanche volumes, impact pressures and methods of avalanche occurrence forecasting are estimated. For example, in one of the methods that has been used for almost half a century, the avalanche runout distance is greatly underestimated, the avalanche speed underestimated by half, and the shock pressure by four times. Now it is no mandatory (but the document not canceled), but researches for many projects with its using were carried out for many years. Of course it is necessary to review all projects where the method was applied. In all documents, there is a common drawback - many of the initial data for the calculations are not defined correctly. Their ambiguous interpretation is allowed. Some techniques are based on incorrect assumptions and incorrect data interpretations. The paper provides an analysis of the imperfections in considered documents. Possibilities for their improvement are proposed.
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Chernous P.A. Nekotorie rezultati ocenki kachestva opredeleniya lavinnogo riska [Some results of determination of avalanche risk quality assessment]. Materialy glyatsiologicheskikh issledovanii [Materials of glaciological studies], 2002, iss. 91, pp. 105-109. (In Russian; abstract in English).
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