MINIMUM FLOW OF RIVERS OF THE BLACK SEA COAST OF THE RUSSIA
There are currently only 8 hydrological posts on the rivers of the Black Sea coast of Russia. Dozens of rivers in the region are not covered by observational data, making it difficult to calculate the minimum flow of rivers to address the protection and use of water resources. The aim of the work is to determine the characteristics of the minimum flow of unexplored rivers of the Black Sea coast and to identify its spatial heterogeneity.
The studies use observation data at 24 posts of Roshydromet (active and closed in the period 1926-2011) and results of summer intergenerational hydrometric surveys carried out in 2007 and 2008 by the State Hydrological Institute on 44 rivers.
A minimum of 10 daily and daily water consumption per year has been adopted as the main design characteristics for the area. The calculation of the minimum drain of unexplored rivers is made on the basis of the data of occasional measurements and the results of observations at the posts of Roshydromet.
It has been found that up to an average catchment height of about 700 m, the minimum average 10-daily water flow rates vary in a small range (up to 3 l/s·km2). With the elevation of the terrain rising above 700 m, there is a marked increase in minimal river runoff in river basins. Geographical and hydrological zoning of the territory by the minimum 10-day river flow was performed. During zoning 4 main areas and 2 sub-districts with different physical-geographical and hydrogeological conditions of formation of minimum river flow have been identified.
The repeatability of shallow years - numbers of cases of the minimum drain of the rivers the probability of excess of ≥80% is estimated. The most often repeating category of shallow years – "single year" (≈78% of cases). An unfavourable hydrological situation occurs when low-water summer periods are repeated after 1-2 years or two-three years in a row. These years tend to see low winter intergenerational and spring floorage.
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